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时间:2021-02-23来源:华宇网校作者:英语六级总分 英语四级网课




  buddhism is the only important foreign religious influence that has become part and parcel of chinese life. the influence is so deep that we now speak of children’s dolls, and sometimes the children themselves, as“ little buddha ”, and the empress dowager herself was addressed as“old buddha”. the goddess of mercy and the laughing buddha have become chinese household words. buddhism has affected our language , our food, our arts, our sculpture and directly inspired the characteristic pagoda . it has stimulated our literature and our whole world of imagination. the little monkish figure, with his bald head and his gray robes, forms an intimate part of any panorama of society, and buddhist temples, rather than those of confucius, are the center of the town and village life, where the elders gather to decide on village matters and annual celebrations. its monks and nuns penetrate the privacies of chinese households, on all occasions of births, deaths and weddings, as no other persons are allowed to do, and hardly a widow or virgin can be seduced , according to the chinese novels, without the help of these religious figures.

  buddhism has conquered china as a philosophy and as a religion, as a philosophy for the scholars and as a religion for the co妹妹on people. whereas confucianism has only a philosophy of moral conduct, buddhism possesses a logical method, a metaphysics , and a theory of knowledge . besides, it is fortunate in having a high tradition of scholarship in the translations of buddhist classics, and the language of these translations, so succinct and often so distinguished by a beautiful lucidity of language and reasoning, cannot but attract scholars with a philosophical bias. hence buddhism has always enjoyed a prestige among the chinese scholars, which so far christianity has failed to achieve.


  Ⅰ. fill in each blank with the proper form of the words given in the brackets :

  1. the injury to their key player could be a________ ( decide ) factor in the basketball game .

  2. the president is paying a ________ ( privacy) visit to europe.

  3. she had the good ________ ( fortunate) to be free from the disease.

  4. some ________ ( influence) politicians change the world chaotic situation.

  5. the offer of a high salary and a free house is very________ ( seduce) . 6. he is a truly ________ ( religion ) man who goes to church every day.

  Ⅱ. answer the following question in your own words :

  why can buddhism win the favor of chinese scholars?



  1. decisive / deciding 2. private 3 . fortune 4. influential 5 . seductive 6. religious


  because buddhism possesses a logical method, a metaphysics, and a theory of knowledge, in addition, buddhist classics have been translated into brief and beautiful chinese .



  佛 教是一个成为中国人生活关键构成部分的关键本国教派。释教对中国影响巨 大, 目前咱们经常将一些孩子的玩具娃娃称为“ 小菩萨”, 偶然乃至将孩子也称为“ 小菩 萨”, 咱们还将慈禧太后称为“ 老菩萨( 老佛爷) ”。观音菩萨和弥勒佛已经成为中国家喻户 晓的名字。释教影响了咱们的言语、饮食、艺术、雕塑, 还直接给咱们灵感, 建造起释教特有 的浮图。释教增进了我国文学的发展, 安慰了咱们全部设想空间。留着秃顶、穿戴灰色长 袍的小僧人抽象已成为中国社会全景图中不行短少的画面。释教寺庙成为中国州里人民 生活的中心, 在寺庙里村落中白叟群集在一同对村落里事情和每一年举行的庆贺运动做出决议, 而孔教的寺庙则无法施展云云大的感化。释教里的僧人和尼姑已经浸透到中国家庭的日 常生活中, 他们出目前孩子出身、葬礼和婚礼等全部关键场所里, 而僧人和尼姑在这些场所 的感化是别人所没法替换的。在中国传统小说里, 若是没有这些宗教人物的帮助, 险些没 有一个未亡人或处 女没有被人诱惑而迷途知返。

  释教作为哲学和宗教降服了中国。作为哲学, 释教博得了中国粹者的心; 作为宗教, 佛 教则取得了布衣黎民的支持。孔教只具备品德行为的哲学, 而释教则具有逻辑要领、形而 上学理论和一整套熟悉学说。别的, 侥幸的是, 在翻译佛家经典著述时, 中国具备优秀的学 术传统, 翻译过去的言语简练明快, 经 文中的言语和推理因美好易懂而卓尔不群, 纵然对哲 学抱有私见的学者也会被其吸收。所以, 释教在中国粹者中不断享有较高的声威, 这一点 基 督教至今还未能到达。


  儒、道、佛是中国传统头脑文明的三大支柱, 三教的交融不断是中国头脑文明发展的主 流。夸大“无我”的印度释教与中邦本土文明在抵触中交融, 在交融中发展, 终极以“ 人人 072 皆有佛性”的头脑在中国获得了普遍撒播。遍及各地区省市香火壮盛的古刹表现了释教在中国的 勃勃性命力。释教虽是外来的, 但中国的政治、经济、文明等方方面面的发展无不遭到释教 文明的影响。看来这外来的僧人是真的会念佛。


  1. 释教。释教与基 督教( christianity) 、伊斯兰教( islam) 并列为天下三大批教。公元前6 至5 世纪释迦牟尼( sakyamuni) 建立于古印度, 西汉末年传入我国, 隋唐是其昌盛壮盛 期。

  2. 关键部分, 重要部分, 如: human needs should be part and parcel of the whole planning and design process. ( 人的需要应该是全部计划和设计流程最基本的部分。

  3. dowager n. 继承亡夫爵位( 或遗产) 的遗孀。文中的empress dowager 是指“慈禧太后”。

  4. the goddess of mercy 指“ 观音菩萨”, the laughing buddha 则是指“ 弥勒佛”, 这两个释教 的仙人已为各位中国人所熟习。buddha n. 佛, 菩萨。

  5. 浮图。塔来源于印度, 最初的汉译音称浮图或塔婆, 最初是用来珍藏佛祖释迦牟尼舍利 的。释迦牟尼身后, 他的门生们把他的舍利划分掩埋在很多中央, 建塔作为标记。厥后, 一些得道高僧逝世了, 也建塔留念。中国的塔有两类, 一类是佛塔, 一类是供来鉴赏、丑化 风物的。

  6. 对⋯⋯作出决议或决定, 如: decide on a course of action ( 决议准备流程) 。

  7. metaphysics n. 玄学( 指哲学中探讨宇宙根来源根基理的一个部分, 也称形而上学) 。


  most of the people who lived near jerusalem were jewish. the romans were pagans , but they allowed the jews to practice their faith and did not force them to worship roman gods. about a. d. 30, a holy man named jesus began to attract a following in the roman province of judea. judea is part of the modern nation of israel. his followers came to believe that jesus was the son of the god of the jews and that he performed miracles. the followers of jesus angered roman authorities because they refused to follow either jewish or roman laws. the authorities arrested and crucified jesus. three days after his execution, jesus followers said they saw him rise from the dead.

  the followers of jesus called him christ. christ is a greek word that means“ chosen one”, because they believed he was chosen by god to be his messenger. in time the followers of jesus became known as christians. the christians taught that people’s sins would be forgiven if they became christian. this message was not successful with many jews, but many pagans responded to the idea of christian salvation.

  many fervent believers carried the message of jesus throughout the roman empire. one of the most successful was a greek-speaking jew named paul of tarsus, known to christians as saint paul. as a young man, he helped to persecute christians, but one day he had a vision in which he believed jesus spoke to him from heaven. paul spent the rest of his life thinking and writing about christianity and winning new converts to the faith. through the persistence of paul and other christian missionaries, small christian co妹妹unities developed throughout the roman empire.

  the first christians believed that jesus would quickly return to earth, so there was no need to create any written records of his life . after about thirty years, christians began to see a need to write down an account of the life and wisdom of jesus. about fifty years after jesus died, christians combined the stories of the life and wisdom of jesus into four books known as gospels. gospel means“ good news”. the holy book of christianity is known as the bible and has two parts. the old testament consists of the sacred writings of the jewish people and was written long before the time of jesus. the new testament of the bible includes the gospels, along with letters written by paul and other christian writers. the bible has been translated into more than 1, 000 languages and has been read by more people than any other book.


  Ⅰ. fill in each blank:

  1. the romans were pagans, but they allowed the jews to_________ ( 实践) their faith and did not force them to _________( 崇奉) roman gods.

  2. his followers came to believe that jesus was the son of the god of the jews and that he performed _________( 奇迹) .

  3. the christians taught that people’s sins would be_________ ( 饶恕) if they became christian.

  4. about fifty years after jesus died , christians _________( 构成) the stories of the life and wisdom of jesus into four books known as _________( 福音) , which means “good news”.

  5. the holy book of christianity is known as the _________( 圣经) and has two parts: the old testament and the new testament.

  Ⅱ. questions :

  what is the holy book of christianity and how many parts does it have ? what are they about?



  1. practice / worship 2 . miracles 3. forgiven 4. combined / gospels 5. bible


  the holy book of christianity is known as the bible and it has two parts. the old testament consists of the sacred writings of the jewish people and was written long before the time of jesus. the new testament of the bible includes the gospels, along with letters written by paul and other christian writers.



  居 住在耶路撒冷四周的人大多都是犹太人。罗马人尽管是异教徒, 但是他们容许犹太 人进行考生自己的宗教运动, 其实不强 迫犹太人信仰罗马神。约莫公元30 年, 一名名为耶稣的圣 人在罗马朱迪亚省垣四周吸收了一大群信徒。朱迪亚是古代以色列的一部分。信徒们相 信耶稣是犹太人的天主的儿子, 而且会缔造奇迹。他们既不禀承犹太法也不禀承罗马法, 从而激愤了罗马*。官方拘捕了耶稣并将他钉逝世在十字架上。行刑后三天, 耶稣的信徒 说他们看到耶稣身后升 天了。

  耶稣的信徒称他为基 督。christ 是个希腊词, 意义为“ 当选中的人”, 由于他们无疑耶 稣是被天主选中充任信使的人。终极, 耶稣的信徒们也就成为了各位所了解的基 督徒。基 督 徒教诲人们若是他们成为基 督徒, 他们的罪过就会获得饶恕。这个说法尽管对许多犹太人 没什么效率, 却让很多异教徒承受了基 督救世的头脑。

  很多狂热的信徒在罗马帝国随处流传耶稣神示。最为完成的信徒之一是叫保罗的塔 尔苏斯人, 他是个说希腊语的犹太人, 也便是基 督徒们了解的圣保罗。保罗年老时, 曾帮助迫 害基 督徒。但是有一天, 他看到了一幅幻境: 耶稣自天堂对他语言。保罗倾其余生都在 思索和写基 督教方面的东西并终极皈依基 督。在保罗和其他基 督教布道士坚韧不拔的努 力之下, 很多基 督教小团体在罗马帝国发展起来。

  晚期的基 督徒都无疑耶稣很快就会重返人世, 因此他们以为没有必要对他的生活经历 作任何书面纪录。约莫30 年后, 他们启动熟悉到记载耶稣的平生及其头脑的必要性。耶 稣身后约莫50 年, 基 督徒们将记载耶稣的生活和头脑的内容合在一同编成四本书, 这便是 各位熟习的《福音》。“ 福音”即“ 佳音”。基 督教的圣书是《圣经》, 它分《旧约》与《新约》两 部分。《旧约》包括纪录犹太人祭奠神的文章, 写成于耶稣以前良久的年月。《新约》则包 括了《福音》及保罗和其他基 督教作者写的手札。《圣经》已经被翻译成一千多种言语, 比 其他任何书的撒播都要广。


  对于东方国家, 特殊是说英语的国家, 基 督教据有非常关键的地位, 是其人民的精神支 柱, 是国家文明的构成部分。因此, 要了解东方文化, 就绕不开基 督教及其经典著述《圣经》。


  1. 耶路撒冷, 地名, 是东北亚巴勒斯坦地域古城, 伊斯兰教、犹太教和基 督教的圣地, 因 此, 耶路撒冷被比作“地狱, 福地”。

  2. 这个词是“ 异教徒”的意义。它本来指“ 非基 督教徒、非犹太教徒或非伊斯兰教徒”。这 里, 根据文章的含义, 它指的是不信犹太教的人。

  3. ( 神缔造的) 奇迹, 人世奇迹。它可作“ 惊人的事例, 使人赞叹的人或事物”解, 如: the bridge was a miracle of engineering. ( 这座桥是工程学上的一大奇迹。)

  4. crucify 是个与基 督教联络很精密的词语, 它指“ 把⋯⋯的四肢举动钉在十字架上正法”。它 所派生出的名词the crucifixion 特指“耶稣之钉逝世于十字架”或“ 耶稣被钉逝世在十字架上 的画或雕像”。

  5. 基 督, 原是耶稣的头衔: jesus the christ, 现成为其名字jesus christ 的一部分。目前天下 通用的公元编年便是以耶稣降生那年定为公元1 年的, 公元编年的透露法ad 即拉丁语 anno domini 的缩写, 意义便是“耶稣纪元后( since christ was born) ”, 而各位凡是所说的 “ 公元前”即bc, 也便是指耶稣降生前, bc 是before christ 的缩写。

  6. 罗马帝国。公元前27 年到公元476 年间, 古罗马占有了全部地中海地域, 395 年分 裂为东西两部。西罗马帝国死亡于476 年。马克思主义史学一般以为这是欧美仆从据有制 社会历史的闭幕。


  he was one of the greatest scientists the world has ever known, yet if i had to convey the essence of albert einstein in a single word, i would choose simplicity. perhaps an anecdote will help. once, caught in a downpour, he took off his hat and held it under his coat. asked why, he explained, with admirable logic , that the rain would damage the hat, but his hair would be none the worse for its wetting. this knack for going instinctively to the heart of a matter was the secret of his major scientific discoveries — this and his extraordinary feeling for beauty.

  i first met albert einstein in 1935 , at the famous institute for advanced study in princeton, n. j. he had been among the first to be invited to the institute, and was offered carte blanche as to salary. to the director’s dismay, einstein asked for an impossible sum: it was far too small. the director had to plead with him to accept a larger salary.

  i was in awe of einstein, and hesitated before approaching him about some ideas i had been working on. when i finally knocked on his door, a gentle voice said, “come ”—with a rising inflection that made the single word both a welcome and a question. i entered his office and found him seated at a table, calculating and smoking his pipe. dressed in ill-fitting clothes, his hair characteristically awry , he smiled a warm welcome . his utter naturalness at once set me at ease.

  as i began to explain my ideas, he asked me to write the equations on the blackboard so he could see how they developed. then came the staggering — and altogether endearing — request:“ please go slowly. i do not understand things quickly. ”this from einstein! he said it gently, and i laughed. from then on, all vestiges of fear were gone .


  Ⅰ. fill in the blanks with proper words of the passage:

  1. if i have to describe albert einstein in a single word, i would choose_______ ( 单 纯) .

  2. caught in a_______ ( 滂沱大雨) , i have got a bad cough.

  3. in the hometown of emperor zhu yuanzhang, there are many _______ ( 轶事) about him.

  4. to my _______ ( 懊丧) , my father doesn’t buy me the walkman i like best. 5. helen keller is so strong-minded a person that i am _______ ( 畏敬) her.

  Ⅱ. questions :

  after reading this passage , do you have a new understanding of this famous person, albert einstein? if yes, then what is it?



  1. simplicity 2. downpour 3. anecdotes 4. dismay 5 . in awe of


  yes, i have a new understanding of him. i find he is not only a great scientist but also a simple man. he is polite and kind to the young people. also he is a little humorous.



  阿 尔伯特· 爱因斯坦是天下上最巨大的科学家之一, 但是若是要用一个词来描述他的 话, 那便是纯粹。照旧看一段他的轶事吧。一次, 爱因斯坦赶上了滂沱大雨, 他便摘下帽子 把它夹在上衣里。问他为何如此做, 他的诠释真是妙极了: 大雨会淋坏帽子, 而头发淋一 下却无伤风雅。他具备一把捉住事物焦点的先天, 并且对美有着奇特的感触感染, 这是他探究 严重科学发现的窍门所在。

  我第一次见阿尔伯特· 爱因斯坦是1935 年, 在新泽西州普林斯顿镇的高等研究 院。他是首批被约请到研究院工作的, 院方赐与的薪资待遇是一张签好字的空缺支票。令院长 懊丧的是, 爱因斯坦的要求让你难以承受: 他索要甚少。院长不能不乞求他多索要一些薪 水。

  我畏敬爱因斯坦, 在就我所做的研究向他讨教以前, 我都感应七上八下。终极, 我敲响 了他办公室的门,“ 出去”, 一个温顺的声响说道——— 那种升调使得这个简单的词语既透露欢 迎又含有疑难。我走进办公室, 看到他坐在桌子旁边, 一边正计算着什么, 一边还抽着烟 斗。爱因斯坦囚首垢面, 头发蓬乱, 很有特征, 他浅笑着向我透露强烈热闹接待。那种轻松自若 的神志, 连忙让我认为很放松。

  我正要向他诠释我的设法主意, 他让我把等式写在黑板上, 以便他能看清晰等式的演算过 程。而后他提了一个使人受惊的——— 又让人喜好的——— 恳求:“ 请慢点写, 我反映慢。”这 话竟出自爱因斯坦! 他语言云云文雅, 我笑了。自那一刻起, 我对爱因斯坦一点都不认为 畏惧了。


  人们说, 一滴水中见天光, 一粒沙中看天下。爱因斯坦曾说过:“ 照亮我的门路, 而且 不停地给我新的勇气, 去高兴地无视生活的期望的东西是真、善和美。”今天, 通过生活中的 这些点滴大事, 咱们看到了他至真、至善、至美的一壁。从而, 这也让咱们看到了这位巨大 的科学家的品德魅力之所在。


  1. 阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦( 1879—1955) , 20 世纪最巨大的科学家之一。他出身在德国乌尔 姆, 直到3 岁才启动发言, 他从小就对自然界充溢激烈的猎奇心并对数学观点有较强的 明白能力。1905 年, 爱因斯坦揭晓了的《广义绝对论》( special theory of relativity) , 诠释了时间、空间和活动等基本自然局面之间的干系。1916 年, 他揭晓《狭义绝对论》 ( general theory of relativity) , 用公式透露能量和质量之间干系, 诠释了太阳取之不尽的能 量的本质, 为原子能的发现奠基了基础。1921 年, 爱因斯坦因发现光电效应定律而获诺贝尔物理奖。他还曾参与过反战、反法西斯和平, 并反对运用核兵器。

  2. 在这里是“ 本质, 实质”的意义, 和词组in essence 意义相反。essence 可作“ 精华, 英华” 解, of the essence 引伸为“极端关键的, 必不行少的”。

  3.“ 轶事, 妙闻”的意义, 指历史或名人平生中未曾揭晓过的底蕴。

  4. 这个词组作“其实不更差, 仍然云云”解, 如: i like a man none the worse for being outspoken. ( 我其实不由于一自己个人直抒己见而厌恶他。)

  5. n. j. 是new jersey ( 新泽西州) 的缩写。princeton ( 普林斯顿) 是新泽西州中部一个自治 镇, 便是这个小镇竟被人们称为“ 学术圣地”, 缘故原由是这里有两个高等学府: 普林斯顿大 学( university of princeton) 和普林斯顿高等研究院( princeton institute for advanced study) 。这篇文章中提到的是普林斯顿高等研究院。该研究院为了坚持生机, 开学术交 流之民风, 常约请天下各地区省市传授到这里会见研究。他们约请传授长则一年, 短则数月, 但 很少有毕生传授。 6. 这是个法语词, 指“ 签好字的空缺支票”, 引伸为“全权, 自在处置权”。这里的意义是“ 爱 因斯坦想要多少工资就OK考生自己填上多少”。

  7. 这个词组作“畏敬”解, 经常使用于句型stand / be in awe of somebody 中, 如: the soldier stood in awe of the general. ( 兵士畏敬将军。)

  8.“曲的, 斜的”的意义, 一般用作表语, 既可作描述词也可作副词运用, 如: glance awry ( 斜 视) , 这里是描述词。这个词还可作“ 脱离了预期或正确方向的, 错的”解, 如: 短语go / run awry 指“人背叛邪道, 走上正路”, 比方事情出岔子, 失利。